Genetics could help diagnose type-1 diabetes in Indians

Ahmedabad,

Researchers at the KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Pune; CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad; and the University of Exeter in the UK have found that a genetic risk score is effective in diagnosing type-1 diabetes in Indians. The outcome of their research has been published in Scientific Reports.

Now, what is this genetic risk score? Developed by the University of Exeter, the genetic risk score takes into account detailed genetic information that are known to increase the chance of developing type-1 diabetes. The score may be used at the time of diabetes diagnosis to help decide if someone has type-1 diabetes.

Will the European genetic risk score be effective in diagnosing type-1 diabetes in Indians? This was the question that naturally arises as the bulk of the research in this field has been conducted in European populations. To answer this question, the research team studied people with diabetes from Pune, India, using the genetic risk score. The team analysed 262 people with type-1 diabetes, 352 people with type-2 diabetes, and 334 people without diabetes. All were of Indian (Indo-European) ancestry. The research outcomes compared well with those in Europeans as revealed in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium Study.

It is widely believed that only children and adolescents get type-1 diabetes and obese and older (typically after 45 years of age) get type-2 diabetes. However, recent findings have shown that type-1 diabetes can occur later in life, while type-2 diabetes is on the rise among younger and thinner Indians. Distinguishing the two types of diabetes, has therefore, become more complex. The two types follow different treatment regime with type-1 diabetes needing lifelong insulin injections but type-2 diabetes often being managed with diet or tablet treatment. Misclassification of the type of diabetes may lead to sub-standard diabetes care and possible complications. In this context, this particular study gains importance as it helps in diagnosing diabetes from its type-1 and type 2 variants correctly.

Researchers at the KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Pune; CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad; and the University of Exeter in the UK have found that a genetic risk score is effective in diagnosing type-1 diabetes in Indians. The outcome of their research has been published in Scientific Reports.

Now, what is this genetic risk score? Developed by the University of Exeter, the genetic risk score takes into account detailed genetic information that are known to increase the chance of developing type-1 diabetes. The score may be used at the time of diabetes diagnosis to help decide if someone has type-1 diabetes.

Will the European genetic risk score be effective in diagnosing type-1 diabetes in Indians? This was the question that naturally arises as the bulk of the research in this field has been conducted in European populations. To answer this question, the research team studied people with diabetes from Pune, India, using the genetic risk score. The team analysed 262 people with type-1 diabetes, 352 people with type-2 diabetes, and 334 people without diabetes. All were of Indian (Indo-European) ancestry. The research outcomes compared well with those in Europeans as revealed in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium Study.

It is widely believed that only children and adolescents get type-1 diabetes and obese and older (typically after 45 years of age) get type-2 diabetes. However, recent findings have shown that type-1 diabetes can occur later in life, while type-2 diabetes is on the rise among younger and thinner Indians. Distinguishing the two types of diabetes, has therefore, become more complex. The two types follow different treatment regime with type-1 diabetes needing lifelong insulin injections but type-2 diabetes often being managed with diet or tablet treatment. Misclassification of the type of diabetes may lead to sub-standard diabetes care and possible complications. In this context, this particular study gains importance as it helps in diagnosing diabetes from its type-1 and type 2 variants correctly.

Although based on European data, the researchers found that the test is effective in diagnosing the right type of diabetes in Indians, even in its current form. They have also found genetic differences between the populations, indicating that the test could be further improved to enhance outcomes for Indian populations.

Although based on European data, the researchers found that the test is effective in diagnosing the right type of diabetes in Indians, even in its current form. They have also found genetic differences between the populations, indicating that the test could be further improved to enhance outcomes for Indian populations.