Let’s discover what’s the biodiversity of India and it’s importance ? A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. Mangroves occur worldwide in tropics and subtropics. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometers, spanning 118 countries and territories.
Sundarban is the largest mangrove wetland in the world. It covers an area of 1 mha, of which 60% is in Bangladesh and 40% in India. Mangrove ecosystems are of great ecological significant. They protect the coast from heavy wind, tidal waves, coastal erosion and sea water intrusion and provide many useful forestry products.
This ecosystem supports rich and diverse fish varieties – 27 families and 53 species of pelagic fish, 49 families 124 species of demersal fish, 5 families and 24 species of shrimps, 3 families and 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lobster. It has 35 of the 50 true mangrove plant species recorded in the globe. It has a total 334 plants, 165 algae, 13 special orchids, 17 fern, 87 monocotyledon and 230 dicotyledon belonging to 245 genera and 75 families. These include 35 legumes, 29 grasses, 19 sedges and 18 euphorbias.
It is the land of Royal Bengal Tiger, spotted deer, barking deer, wild boars, jungle cats, fishing cat, civet cat, monkey, wild buffalo, Bengal fox, Javan rhinoceros jackal, water monitor, monitor lizard and snakes It supports purple heron, pond heron, cattle egret, little egret, open billed stork, smaller adjutant stork, brahmini kite, spotted dove, rose ringed parakeet, crow pheasant, wood pecker, bee eater, drongo, pied myna, jungle myna, bulbul, tailor bird, magpie robin, sparrow and other bird species.